ATP PRODUCTION & CELLULAR ENERGY


The reason that we eat, is for energy and building structure. Although energy cannot be created or destroyed, its form can change or shift. During metabolism, our bodies break down fuel molecules and trap the energy released within the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Mitochondria is the cell's powerhouse responsible for the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP.

During exercise, muscles are constantly contracting to power motion, our brain is also using energy to maintain ion gradients essential for nerve activity. The source of the chemical energy for these and other life processes is the molecule ATP. It contains potential energy that is released during its hydrolysis, or reaction with water. ATP is converted to ADP (adenosine diphosphate), and 7.3 Cal (kcal) of energy is released. This energy can be used to power the cell’s activities, like muscle contraction or building structure..



The inner mitochondria membrane contains more protons compared to the matrix. The production of ATP involves the movement of protons from the membrane to the matrix. In addition, the cell can quickly starve for energy and die due to the lack of proton flow. Food (glucose) is converted into energy through glycolysis, followed by the citric acid cycle and, finally, the Electron Transport Chain.


ATP plays a very important role in preserving the structure of the cell by helping the assembly of the cytoskeletal elements. It also supplies energy to the flagella and chromosomes to maintain their appropriate functioning.


The production of ATP requires to use up the same molecule to produce a larger number of ATP. Here is an example of the stage 3 in glycolysis:


Glycolysis - Stage 3:

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate undergoes a series of enzyme-catalyzed oxidative reactions to form pyruvate as the end product. This is the harvesting stage, whereby 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH are produced for each initial molecule of glucose.

For every 1 glucose molecule,

Number of ATP used = 2

Number of ATP formed = 4

Number of NADH produced = 2 (Equivalent to 2x3 ATP = 6 ATP)

Number of ATPs used up for transporting NADH = 2x1 = 2 ATPs

Total ATP formed = 6


This example is continued with other components to form pyruvate and convert it to Acetyl-CoA, followed by the Citric Acid Cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle.

It is a series of enzyme reactions where acetyl CoA formed from oxidation of pyruvate is used. The result of this process is the formation of energy in the form of ATP.


In order to produce a larger amount of ATP, then it's each individual usual cycle, an impulse needs to be set, preferably in the use of muscle contraction (EMS) or sports in general. This impulse of using up the molecule ATP will eventually result into cellular division and create a continuous loop of producing more ATP.


The Krebs cycle pass their electrons to the electron transport chain (ETC), the final stage of respiration. The electron transport chain consists of various proteins (carriers) embedded in the mitochondrial membrane (complexes I –IV).


Electrons are passed through the carriers, eventually ending up reducing O2 to form water. The energy released as the electrons flow through the chain is used to transport protons out of the mitochondria. As the protons flow back inside the mitochondria through another membrane protein, the ATP synthase, energy is released that is used to make ATP.


Significant fact about the Electron transport chain is that the ATP synthase is the largest producer of ATP in the cell!


2.5 ATPs made from each NADH and 1.5 ATP from each FADH2 sent from glycolysis and the Citric acid cycle. Adding the number of ATP molecules produced from glycolysis (2) and the number produced in the citric acid cycle (1) with the number produced in the ETC (27) yields a grand total of 30 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose.


ORION is supporting directly the Electron transport chain by adding a flow of electrons, in the right calibration, wavelength and energy quanta, to form a larger amount of ATP molecules in the F1F0ATPase complex.


Quantum EMS uses electric impulses that cause the stimulation of Cellular energy production and muscle fibers, causing the muscles to expand and contract. The different wavelength end impulses are generated by ORION in our built-in program and then applied to skin and muscles.

These impulses mimic the central nervous system's action potential, generally produced in the body to cause muscle contraction. The impact of this tones and strengthens the muscles while increasing the production of ATP simultaneously.

This image showing densely packed bundles of collagen fibers (stained in red). Under the epidermis (blue), the papillary dermis show a more loose tissue due to natural aging. Quantum EMS support cellular division to increase collagen and elastin fibers across all skin layers.




Even as evolutionists wonder about life before the ATP molecule, no other energy source currently exists that can accurately respond to the energy needs of the cell and carry out its crucial processes.

ATP is a highly efficient molecular machine with a rapid turnover of energy that makes it suitable to meet the changing energy demands of the body. An ATP molecule is over 500 atomic mass units (AMUs).






References

Biochemistry (second edition): By D ss and J G Voet. pp 1361. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1995. $86.95/£27.50 ISBN 0-471-58651-X. (1995). Biochemical Education, 23(2), 104–105. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/0307-4412(95)90658-4

https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Adenosine-Triphosphate-(ATP)-Function-in-Cells.aspx


Romano, A. H., & Conway, T. (1996). Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways. Research in Microbiology, 147(6–7), 448–455. https://doi.org/10.1016/0923-2508(96)83998-2

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